Friday, April 21, 2017

the new water heater

INDEX to the series

(click graph to enlarge)

I had previously determined that my hot water heater was one of my top five largest electricity uses.

So I recently replaced my old electric water heater with a new electric heater of the same type, but 23 years newer. I now have data which shows less electricity to keep my water hot than before. The red line is the new water heater, the blue is the old.

I didn't get anything special. Mine is a GSW (AO Smith) base model but I will treat it with a bit of extra insulation. Even without the insulation I will add, so far I can see that the new heater has better insulation than did the old heater from 1994. It is ON less often.

The graph shows the percentage of the time that the water heater is ON. The new heater has the same standard 3000 watt heaters as did the old so it uses the same amount of energy when it is ON. The difference is that it is not ON as much as the old heater as shown by the %.

I am measuring the duty cycle % in the same manner that I did in the old water heater article then plotting the data points as I make them. The red regression line of the new heater data should grow towards the right as the temperature in the basement gradually rises with the coming summer.

A water heater will work harder when the temperature around it drops (lowering the ambient temperature). My water heater is in the basement quite close to the furnace which causes the temperature in the basement to vary by a few degrees as the furnace goes through its cycle so I have a fair amount of scatter in the data points the more the furnace runs.

Here is the new water heater on a sort of pedestal that I made from wood and 1-1/2 inch Styrofoam sheet that I hot wire cut to a disc shape to sit between the heater and the wooden base.

The old heater was sitting directly on the cold concrete floor. The base and insulation will help reduce heat loss through the bottom of the heater.

I plan to wrap the heater with a blanket layer of insulation. I have another circular disc to close the top.

Both the new and the old set points are the same, the recommended 60C / 140 degrees F to prevent bacterial growth. The new water heater is also controlled with an electronic timer to prevent it from operating during peak rate periods.

Thanks for your interest.

George Plhak
Lion's Head, Ontario, Canada

INDEX to the series

Tuesday, April 18, 2017

reader questions - concentrator versus flat plate

Re article Summary/Conclusion - DIY Flat Plate vs. Concentrator Performance

On 4/17/2017 8:29 PM, Paul Arnold wrote:
> Hi. I came across your website via and was interested in your comparison of the flat plate collector vs concentrator. You don't mention cost and ease of construction factors. Could you say which is cheaper to build on average? You built both. Which would you say would be easier to construct? What about speed of construction when attempting to build a large array?
> I am also intrigued by the idea of running a steam engine with your concentrators. Would you be able to guess the cost comparison per watt of useful energy with solar panels? I'm assuming you would capture the exhaust from the steam engine for space and water heating so it might be close. I'd love to hear your thoughts on this.
> -Paul Arnold

Hi Paul. Thanks for your interest and your good questions.

Originally I built a concentrating pool heater array which was un-insulated. It worked well for that application for five years (until I had to move and I took it down).

In that situation, I thought the concentrator was less expensive than flat plate although more complex, especially since I would be doing it for the first time. I could not find a suitable design for a concentrator so had to come up with a design myself. (This resulted in my first book "How to Build ...").

For pool heating, I was trying to heat a huge quantity of water by only a few degrees which the concentrator did admirably. Insulation was not required for the pool heater application, so lower cost.

I continued to work on a set of improvements which I called Gen2 which is an insulated version. This second version of the concentrator with the insulated collector (The Home Experimentor's Manual) would be more expensive. The added insulation (primarily the glass evacuated tubes) would not be required for a pool heater but made possible higher temperatures and higher latitude use in winter.

I publish cost estimates for both my parabolic designs although these are only for guidance. Your approach may differ from mine. See Bill of Materials here.

The cost of building a flat plate will depend on the design and materials you use. Whether it will be insulated, for example. You will find many versions and Gary's recommendations at his site Determine your cost of making a flat plate after you decide on your favored approach for your application.

About making electricity from steam, I am not currently pursuing this nor do I know anyone who has demonstrated a durable, safe, long term approach. Since the price of PV solar panels has plunged over the past ten years, it seems that interest in doing the alternative, with solar generated steam and some sort of turbine/generator, has faded. Are you clear that you cannot make steam with a flat plate? You need a concentrator for that. The two are not interchangable.

Best of luck with your efforts. Let me know if you build something that works for you. If trying steam, be SAFE!


George Plhak

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

bad system drive

Without warning, the C: drive of my main computer quit a couple of days ago.

I was able to keep working on a backup machine which is physically the same as the main computer but without all the software.

Fortunately most of my work was on another drive which I backup regularly. I seem to have lost my sent mail however. My mail program data was on the failed drive. I should be able to retrieve my sent mail from my mail server? More learning.

I did not have a current backup to restore from. I have reloaded Windows 10 on a brand new C: drive, an upgrade from the failed 750MB to a new Seagate Barracuda 2TB.

The reload experience with Windows 10 was interesting. I had made a Windows 10 recovery disk (the CD in the picture) back in December and it did boot the amchine into Windows 10. It did offer to restore from a backup, if I only had one.

So I had to reload Windows 10 using the Microsoft Windows 10 Media Creation Tool. This makes an installer on a USB drive, a fresh copy of Windows 10 from the source and it automatically licenses somehow from my Microsoft ID.

Now I am reloading my programs: Adobe, Corel, LibreOffice, Thunderbird, Chrome etc and all their helper plug-ins. Apps in new speak.

Don't think this can't happen to you. Have a backup.

One piece of learning was that I had S.M.A.R.T. reporting turned off in the motherboard BIOS.The drive may have been trying to let me know there was a problem but I was not allowing it.

That system did seem to be taking a long time to boot and there was an occasional cryptic memory error message from Windows that I have captured somewhere. Also Windows Backup was nagging me that it had not completed (for some time now).

So maintenance was overdue, perhaps a system swap, test backup. I had the hardware but just had done none of those things.

The failed drive starts. I can hear and feel it start in my hand. The disk is turning, a few clicks and then it just spins. But it is not recognized on any of the live SATA ports I have tried it on. Maybe I can swap the circuit board if I can find another like mine. (click the picture to read the lable)

I had written about having twos of things.

George Plhak
Lion's Head, Ontario, Canada